During the event, a specific symposium is held for the EU Train-ESOT that highlights the methodological and statistical risks clinical researchers can face in the field of transplantation. Carmen Lefaucheur, Olivier Aubert, Alexandre Loupy and Yassine Bouatou are invited to speak during this event to present the future of patient care in transplantation.
You can follow the event through social media with the hashtag #ESOT2019 and @ParisTxGroup.
This review focuses on current standards for the management of antibody-mediated rejection in transplant recipients and identifies future directions for improving diagnostics and moving toward tailored therapeutics. Such advances require the development of pathogenesis-based approaches that combine precise characterization of the biologic properties of antibodies, noninvasive biomarkers, and allograft gene-expression profiling, which will set the stage for bringing antibody-mediated rejection into the era of precision medicine.
REVISED DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR CHRONIC ACTIVE T CELL–MEDIATED REJECTION, ANTIBODY‐MEDIATED REJECTION, AND PROSPECTS FOR INTEGRATIVE ENDPOINTS FOR NEXT‐GENERATION CLINICAL TRIALS
The kidney sessions of the 2017 Banff Conference focused on 2 areas: clinical implications of inflammation in areas of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (i-IFTA) and its relationship to T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR), and the continued evolution of molecular diagnostics, particularly in the diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). In confirmation of previous studies, it was independently demonstrated by 2 groups that i-IFTA is associated with reduced graft survival. Furthermore, these groups presented that i-IFTA, particularly when involving >25% of sclerotic cortex in association with tubulitis, is often a sequela of acute TCMR in association with underimmunosuppression. The classification was thus revised to include moderate i-IFTA plus moderate or severe tubulitis as diagnostic of chronic active TCMR. Other studies demonstrated that certain molecular classifiers improve diagnosis of ABMR beyond what is possible with histology, C4d, and detection of donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) and that both C4d and validated molecular assays can serve as potential alternatives and/or complements to DSAs in the diagnosis of ABMR. The Banff ABMR criteria are thus updated to include these alternatives. Finally, the present report paves the way for the Banff scheme to be part of an integrative approach for defining surrogate endpoints in next-generation clinical trials.
T cell-mediated rejection is a major determinant of inflammation in scarred areas in kidney allografts.
Inflammation in fibrosis areas (i-IF/TA) of kidney allografts is associated with allograft loss; however, its diagnostic significance remains to be determined. We investigated the clinicohistologic phenotype and determinants of i-IF/TA in a prospective cohort of 1539 kidney recipients undergoing evaluation of i-IF/TA and tubulitis in atrophic tubules (t-IF/TA) on protocol allograft biopsies performed at 1 year posttransplantation. We considered donor, recipient, and transplant characteristics, immunosuppression, and histological diagnoses in 2260 indication biopsies performed within the first year posttransplantation. Nine hundred forty-six (61.5%) patients presented interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IF/TA Banff grade > 0) at 1 year posttransplant, among whom 394 (41.6%) showed i-IF/TA. i-IF/TA correlated with concurrent t-IF/TA (P < .001), interstitial inflammation (P < .001), tubulitis (P < .001), total inflammation (P < .001), peritubular capillaritis (P < .001), interstitial fibrosis (P < .001), and tubular atrophy (P = .02). The independent determinants of i-IF/TA were previous T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) (P < .001), BK virus nephropathy (P = .007), steroid therapy (P = .039), calcineurin inhibitor therapy (P = .011), inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor therapy (P = .011), HLA-B mismatches (P = .012), and HLA-DR mismatches (P = .044). TCMR patients with i-IF/TA on posttreatment biopsy (N = 83/136, 61.0%) exhibited accelerated progression of IF/TA over time (P = .01) and decreased 8-year allograft survival (70.8% vs 83.5%, P = .038) compared to those without posttreatment i-IF/TA. Our results support that i-IF/TA may represent a manifestation of chronic active TCMR.
Complement-Activating Anti-HLA Antibodies in Kidney Transplantation: Allograft Gene Expression Profiling and Response to Treatment
Plenary session - Saturday April 30, 2016 - 10:55
M. Racapé, A. Loupy, J. Reeve, J. Venner, R. Guillemain, L. Hidalgo, C. Lefaucheur, X. Jouven, P. Bruneval, J. Duong Van Huyen, P. Halloran.
- Purpose: The detection of phosphorylated effectors of the mTOR pathway in endothelial cells by immunohistochemistry (IHC) has been associated with allograft rejection. The aim of this study was to evaluate in heart transplant recipients the molecular phenotype related to the endothelial detection of the phosphorylated effectors of the mTOR pathway, pS6RP.
- Methods: This case-control study included 41 heart transplant patients from four French referral centers with biopsy proven antibody-mediated rejection (pAMR+) and a matched control group of 32 patients without rejection (pAMR0) based on the updated ISHLT classification. From these patients, 93 endomyocardial biopsies (EMB) had adequate material for microarray analysis and IHC. We studied in all EMB the endothelial expression of pS6RP by IHC. We also determined the allograft gene expression profile using the ABMR molecular score in addition to pathogenesis-based transcripts reflecting endothelial activation (DSAST and ENDAT), macrophage burden (QCMAT), gamma-interferon response (GRIT) and NK-cell burden (NKB) (http://atagc.med.ualberta.ca).
- Results: Among the 93 EMBs included in main analyses, 49 were pAMR+ (52.7%) and 44 (47.3%) were pAMR0 normal EMBs. Endothelial expression of pS6RP was observed in 27/49 (55.1%) of pAMR+ biopsies and 12 out of 44 normal biopsies (27.3%, Fischer's exact: p=0.011). As compared with biopsies without endothelial pS6RP labeling, biopsies with positive endothelial pS6RP staining showed increased expression in DSAST (Mann-Whitney: p<0.0001), ENDAT (p=0.0008), QCMAT (p=0.0052), NKB (p=0.0001) and increased ABMR molecular score reflecting interferon-effects, microcirculation stress and NK burden (p=0.0001).
- Conclusion: Endothelial activation of mTOR pathway is associated with antibody-mediated allograft rejection and increased expression in transcripts reflecting endothelial activation, macrophage burden, microcirculation and NK burden. Our results suggest the importance of the mTOR pathway activation in antibody-mediated heart allograft injury and the potential interest of using mTOR inhibitors in this setting.
2015 BAnff/CST Meeting, Organizing Corporation (MOC)
Alexandre Loupy, chair
Cinthia Beskox Drachenberg
W. Dean Wallace
Linda C cendales
2015 BANFF/CST, October 5-10, 2016 | Vancouver, BC
Rejection of allografts has always been the major obstacle to transplantation success. We aimed to improve characterisation of diff erent kidney-allograft rejection phenotypes, identify how each one is associated with anti-HLA antibodies, and investigate their distinct prognoses.
Patients who underwent ABO-compatible kidney transplantations in Necker Hospital and Saint-Louis Hospital (Paris, France) between Jan 1, 1998, and Dec 31, 2008, were included in our population-based study. We assessed patients who provided biopsy samples for acute allograft rejection, which was defi ned as the association of deterioration in function and histopathological lesions. The main outcome was kidney allograft loss—ie, return to dialysis. To investigate distinct rejection patterns, we retrospectively assessed rejection episodes with review of graft histology, C4d in allograft biopsies, and donor-specifi c anti-HLA antibodies.
2079 patients were included in the main analyses, of whom 302 (15%) had acute biopsy-proven rejection. We identified four distinct patterns of kidney allograft rejection: T cell-mediated vascular rejection (26 patients [9%]), antibody-mediated vascular rejection (64 [21%]), T cell-mediated rejection without vasculitis (139 [46%]), and antibody mediated rejection without vasculitis (73 [24%]). Risk of graft loss was 9.07 times (95 CI 3.62–19.7) higher in antibody-mediated vascular rejection than in T cell-mediated rejection without vasculitis (p<0.0001), compared with an increase of 2.93 times (1.1–7.9; P=0.0237) in antibody-mediated rejection without vasculitis and no significant rise in T cell-mediated vascular rejection (hazard ratio [HR] 1.5, 95% CI 0.33–7.6; p=0.60).
We have identified a type of kidney rejection not presently included in classifications: antibody mediated vascular rejection. Recognition of this distinct phenotype could lead to the development of new treatment strategies that could salvage many kidney allografts.
Mastering the risk of HLA antibodies in kidney transplantation: an algorithm based on pretransplant single-antigen flow bead techniques.
The utilization of sensitive techniques of detection of HLA antibodies to define and measure sensitization has greatly evolved in recent years. We present here an approach to minimize the risk of HLA antibodies in kidney transplantation based on the evaluation of graft accessibility of sensitized patients by calculated PRA (cPRA) and estimation of potential matched donors (PMD) using a national simulation software program. This study included all registered patients on our waiting list (WL) for deceased donor (DD) kidney transplants. All patients were screened by single-antigen flowbead (SAFB) techniques. Of the 502 registered patients, 174 (34.7%) were sensitized. Among these, 48.3% (84 pts) had a cPRA>85%. For 75.3% of sensitized patients (90 pts with cPRA≤85% and 41 pts with cPRA>85%), the flow of PMD was considered sufficient to allow a transplant avoiding all unacceptable antigens. The 41 patients with a cPRA>85% (48.8%) had a satisfactory donor flow in the framework of the national prioritization program for highly sensitized patients. Finally, 43 sensitized patients (24.7%) were deemed eligible for a strategy of higher immunological risk through desensitization protocols or transplantation against HLA-DSAs. This approach provides a logical and systematic strategy to rationalize the access of sensitized patients to kidney transplantation minimizing the risk of HLA antibodies.
Comparison of combination Plasmapheresis/IVIg/anti-CD20 versus high-dose IVIg in the treatment of antibody-mediated rejection.
Paris Transplant Group
Our global aim is to accelerate the translation of immunological and gene expression discoveries into the clinical field by filling the gap between basic science and applied biomedical researches.
Jean Paul Duong Van Huyen