2016 American Transplant Congress (ATC)
June 11-15, 2016 in Boston, MA
Sunday June 12, 2016
1/ Complement-Binding Donor-Specific Anti-HLA Antibodies Are Associated with Severe Kidney Allograft Arteriosclerosis
Concurrent Session: Novel Markers of Long Term Kidney Transplant Outcomes (2:30 PM-4:00 PM)
Ballroom A - 2:30 pm
A. Loupy, D. Viglietti, J. Duong Van Huyen, D. Glotz, C. Legendre, A. Zeevi, C. Lefaucheur. Necker Hospital, Paris, France; Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris, France; University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh
The role of circulating donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSA) in the development of accelerated arteriosclerosis have been recently reported in kidney transplant recipients. This study investigated the characteristics of DSA that are associated with the severity of allograft arteriosclerosis.
We enrolled 744 consecutive kidney transplantation performed between January 1, 2004 and January 1, 2010 at Necker Hospital (Paris, France), with systematic assessment of injury phenotype and arteriosclerotic lesions using the vascular fibrous intimal thickening (cv) Banff score on allograft biopsies performed at one year after transplantation. We assessed circulating DSA and their characteristics (specificity, HLA class, mean fluorescence intensity [MFI] and C1q-binding) at six months after transplantation.
We identified 281 patients with cv0 score, 213 patients with cv1 score, 189 patients with cv2 score and 61 patients with cv3 score. The distribution of DSA according to cv score was the following: 47/281 (17%) in cv0 patients, 39/213 (18%) in cv1 patients, 63/189 (33%) in cv2 patients and 28/61 (46%) in cv3 patients. Immunodominant DSA (iDSA) MFI level was positively correlated with the severity of arteriosclerosis (Spearman's rho=0.23, p=0.002), with a mean MFI of 3204.0±3725.2 in cv0 patients, 3760±3598 in cv1 patients, 4892±4676 in cv2 patients and 5541±3892 in cv3 patients. C1q-binding DSA prevalence increased with the severity of allograft arteriosclerosis: 8/281 (3%) in cv0 patients, 6/213 (3%) in cv1 patients, 25/189 (13%) in cv2 patients and 9/61 (15%) in cv3 patients (p<0.001). Patients with C1q-binding iDSA had a higher cv score compared with patients with non-C1q-binding DSA (1.7±1.0 versus 1.3±1.1, respectively, p=0.01). The C1q-binding capacity of DSA was associated with increased microvascular inflammation (p<0.001) and C4d deposition in peritubular capillaries or arteries (p<0.001).
This study shows a biological gradient between DSA MFI level and the severity of allograft arteriosclerosis. The complement-binding capacity of DSA is associated with an increased severity of arteriosclerosis and complement deposition in allograft.
M. Racapé, A. Loupy, J. Reeve, J. Venner, R. Guillemain, L. Hidalgo, C. Lefaucheur, X. Jouven, P. Bruneval, J. Duong Van Huyen, P. Halloran.
Conference Organizing Committee
2015 BAnff/CST Meeting, Organizing Corporation (MOC)
Alexandre Loupy, chair
Cinthia Beskox Drachenberg
W. Dean Wallace
Linda C cendales
2015 BANFF/CST, October 5-10, 2016 | Vancouver, BC
Rejection of allografts has always been the major obstacle to transplantation success. We aimed to improve characterisation of diff erent kidney-allograft rejection phenotypes, identify how each one is associated with anti-HLA antibodies, and investigate their distinct prognoses.
Patients who underwent ABO-compatible kidney transplantations in Necker Hospital and Saint-Louis Hospital (Paris, France) between Jan 1, 1998, and Dec 31, 2008, were included in our population-based study. We assessed patients who provided biopsy samples for acute allograft rejection, which was defi ned as the association of deterioration in function and histopathological lesions. The main outcome was kidney allograft loss—ie, return to dialysis. To investigate distinct rejection patterns, we retrospectively assessed rejection episodes with review of graft histology, C4d in allograft biopsies, and donor-specifi c anti-HLA antibodies.
2079 patients were included in the main analyses, of whom 302 (15%) had acute biopsy-proven rejection. We identified four distinct patterns of kidney allograft rejection: T cell-mediated vascular rejection (26 patients [9%]), antibody-mediated vascular rejection (64 [21%]), T cell-mediated rejection without vasculitis (139 [46%]), and antibody mediated rejection without vasculitis (73 [24%]). Risk of graft loss was 9.07 times (95 CI 3.62–19.7) higher in antibody-mediated vascular rejection than in T cell-mediated rejection without vasculitis (p<0.0001), compared with an increase of 2.93 times (1.1–7.9; P=0.0237) in antibody-mediated rejection without vasculitis and no significant rise in T cell-mediated vascular rejection (hazard ratio [HR] 1.5, 95% CI 0.33–7.6; p=0.60).
We have identified a type of kidney rejection not presently included in classifications: antibody mediated vascular rejection. Recognition of this distinct phenotype could lead to the development of new treatment strategies that could salvage many kidney allografts.
Mastering the risk of HLA antibodies in kidney transplantation: an algorithm based on pretransplant single-antigen flow bead techniques.
The utilization of sensitive techniques of detection of HLA antibodies to define and measure sensitization has greatly evolved in recent years. We present here an approach to minimize the risk of HLA antibodies in kidney transplantation based on the evaluation of graft accessibility of sensitized patients by calculated PRA (cPRA) and estimation of potential matched donors (PMD) using a national simulation software program. This study included all registered patients on our waiting list (WL) for deceased donor (DD) kidney transplants. All patients were screened by single-antigen flowbead (SAFB) techniques. Of the 502 registered patients, 174 (34.7%) were sensitized. Among these, 48.3% (84 pts) had a cPRA>85%. For 75.3% of sensitized patients (90 pts with cPRA≤85% and 41 pts with cPRA>85%), the flow of PMD was considered sufficient to allow a transplant avoiding all unacceptable antigens. The 41 patients with a cPRA>85% (48.8%) had a satisfactory donor flow in the framework of the national prioritization program for highly sensitized patients. Finally, 43 sensitized patients (24.7%) were deemed eligible for a strategy of higher immunological risk through desensitization protocols or transplantation against HLA-DSAs. This approach provides a logical and systematic strategy to rationalize the access of sensitized patients to kidney transplantation minimizing the risk of HLA antibodies.
JASN - PMID: 20634297
The clinical importance of preexisting HLA antibodies at the time of transplantation, identified by contemporary techniques, is not well understood. We conducted an observational study analyzing the association between preexisting donor-specific HLA antibodies (HLA-DSA) and incidence of acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and survival of patients and grafts among 402 consecutive deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients. We detected HLA-DSA using Luminex single-antigen assays on the peak reactive and current sera. All patients had a negative lymphocytotoxic cross-match test on the day of transplantation. We found that 8-year graft survival was significantly worse (61%) among patients with preexisting HLA-DSA compared with both sensitized patients without HLA-DSA (93%) and nonsensitized patients (84%). Peak HLA-DSA Luminex mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) predicted AMR better than current HLA-DSA MFI (P = 0.028). As MFI of the highest ranked HLA-DSA detected on peak serum increased, graft survival decreased and the relative risk for AMR increased: Patients with MFI >6000 had >100-fold higher risk for AMR than patients with MFI <465 (relative risk 113; 95% confidence interval 31 to 414). The presence of HLA-DSA did not associate with patient survival. In conclusion, the risk for both AMR and graft loss directly correlates with peak HLA-DSA strength. Quantification of HLA antibodies allows stratification of immunologic risk, which should help guide selection of acceptable grafts for sensitized patients.
Comparison of combination Plasmapheresis/IVIg/anti-CD20 versus high-dose IVIg in the treatment of antibody-mediated rejection.
American Journal of Transplantation - PMID: 19422335
Different strategies appear to improve the success in treatment of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), although no one best method has yet emerged. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of the combination of Plasmapheresis/intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg)/anti-CD20-based regimes versus high-dose IVIg alone in the treatment of AMR. Group A (12 patients) was treated with high-dose IVIg between January 2000 and December 2003; group B (12 patients) was treated by Plasmapheresis/IVIg/anti-CD20 between January 2004 and December 2005. Graft survival at 36 months was 91.7% in group B versus 50% in group A (p = 0.02). Donor-specific human leukocyte antigens (DSA) levels detected by Luminex single antigen (Luminex SA) and ELISA, 3 months postrejection are significantly lower in group B than in group A: DSA ELISA class 2 score 6-8 (p = 0.02), DSA mean intensity of fluorescence (MFI) max (p = 0.009) and DSA mean MFI (p = 0.0004). The persistence of elevated DSA levels posttreatment is more frequent in patients with graft loss as compared to those with preserved renal function: score 6-8 on ELISA (p = 0.04); mean MFI (p = 0.00009) and MFImax (p = 0.018). We conclude that: (1) high dose IVIg alone is inferior to Plasmapheresis/IVIg/anti-CD20 as therapy for AMR and (2)DSA postrejection can be quantified using solid phase assays, showing that 3 months after AMR, DSA levels are higher in patients with graft loss.
Paris Transplant Group
Our global aim is to accelerate the translation of immunological and gene expression discoveries into the clinical field by filling the gap between basic science and applied biomedical researches.