Building a tissue-based molecular diagnostic system in heart transplant rejection: The heart Molecular Microscope Diagnostic (MMDx) System.
Halloran PF, Potena L, Van Huyen JD, Bruneval P, Leone O, Kim DH, Jouven X, Reeve J, Loupy A.
The emergence of molecular systems offers opportunities for improving the assessment of rejection in heart transplant biopsy specimens. The present study developed a microarray-based system for assessing heart transplant endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) specimens.
We analyzed 331 protocol or for-cause EMB specimens from 221 subjects in 3 centers (Edmonton, Bologna, and Paris). Unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) and archetype analysis used rejection-associated transcripts (RATs) shown in kidney transplants to be associated with antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) or T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR), or both. To compare EMB specimens to kidney biopsy specimens, rejection status in both was simplified to TCMR, ABMR, or no rejection.
The pattern of RAT expression was similar in EMB and kidney specimens, permitting use of RATs to assign scores and group ("cluster") membership to each EMB, independent of histology. Three clusters emerged in EMB specimens, similar to kidney specimens: TCMR, ABMR, and no rejection. This permitted each EMB specimen to be given 3 scores and assigned to 1 cluster by its highest score. There was significant agreement between molecular phenotype-archetype scores or clusters-and both histologic diagnoses and donor-specific antibody. Area under curve estimates for predicting histologic TCMR, ABMR, and no rejection by molecular assessment were lower in EMB specimens than in kidney specimens, reflecting more uncertainty in EMB specimens, particularly in histologic diagnosis of TCMR.
Rejection-associated transcripts can be used to estimate the probability of TCMR and ABMR in heart transplant specimens, providing a new dimension to improve the accuracy of diagnoses and an independent system for recalibrating the histology guidelines.
T cell-mediated rejection is a major determinant of inflammation in scarred areas in kidney allografts.
Inflammation in fibrosis areas (i-IF/TA) of kidney allografts is associated with allograft loss; however, its diagnostic significance remains to be determined. We investigated the clinicohistologic phenotype and determinants of i-IF/TA in a prospective cohort of 1539 kidney recipients undergoing evaluation of i-IF/TA and tubulitis in atrophic tubules (t-IF/TA) on protocol allograft biopsies performed at 1 year posttransplantation. We considered donor, recipient, and transplant characteristics, immunosuppression, and histological diagnoses in 2260 indication biopsies performed within the first year posttransplantation. Nine hundred forty-six (61.5%) patients presented interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IF/TA Banff grade > 0) at 1 year posttransplant, among whom 394 (41.6%) showed i-IF/TA. i-IF/TA correlated with concurrent t-IF/TA (P < .001), interstitial inflammation (P < .001), tubulitis (P < .001), total inflammation (P < .001), peritubular capillaritis (P < .001), interstitial fibrosis (P < .001), and tubular atrophy (P = .02). The independent determinants of i-IF/TA were previous T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) (P < .001), BK virus nephropathy (P = .007), steroid therapy (P = .039), calcineurin inhibitor therapy (P = .011), inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor therapy (P = .011), HLA-B mismatches (P = .012), and HLA-DR mismatches (P = .044). TCMR patients with i-IF/TA on posttreatment biopsy (N = 83/136, 61.0%) exhibited accelerated progression of IF/TA over time (P = .01) and decreased 8-year allograft survival (70.8% vs 83.5%, P = .038) compared to those without posttreatment i-IF/TA. Our results support that i-IF/TA may represent a manifestation of chronic active TCMR.
Complement-Activating Anti-HLA Antibodies in Kidney Transplantation: Allograft Gene Expression Profiling and Response to Treatment
The purpose of the present review is to describe how we improve the model for risk stratification of transplant outcomes in kidney transplantation by incorporating the novel insights of donor-specific anti-HLA antibody (DSA) characteristics. The detection of anti-HLA DSA is widely used for the assessment of pre- and posttransplant risks of rejection and allograft loss; however, not all anti-HLA DSA carry the same risk for transplant outcomes. These antibodies have been shown to cause a wide spectrum of effects on allografts, ranging from the absence of injury to indolent or full-blown acute antibody-mediated rejection. Consequently, the presence of circulating anti-HLA DSA does not provide a sufficient level of accuracy for the risk stratification of allograft outcomes. Enhancing the predictive performance of anti-HLA DSA is currently one of the most pressing unmet needs for facilitating individualized treatment choices that may improve outcomes. Recent advancements in the assessment of anti-HLA DSA properties, including their strength, complement-binding capacity, and IgG subclass composition, significantly improved the risk stratification model to predict allograft injury and failure. Although risk stratification based on anti-HLA DSA properties appears promising, further specific studies that address immunological risk stratification in large and unselected populations are required to define the benefits and cost-effectiveness of such comprehensive assessment prior to clinical implementation.
Gene Expression Profiling for the Identification and Classification of Antibody-Mediated Heart Rejection
Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) contributes to heart allograft loss. However, an important knowledge gap remains in terms of the pathophysiology of AMR and how detection of immune activity, injury degree, and stage could be improved by intragraft gene expression profiling.
We prospectively monitored 617 heart transplant recipients referred from 4 French transplant centers (January 1, 2006-January 1, 2011) for AMR. We compared patients with AMR (n=55) with a matched control group of 55 patients without AMR. We characterized all patients using histopathology (ISHLT [International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation] 2013 grades), immunostaining, and circulating anti-HLA donor-specific antibodies at the time of biopsy, together with systematic gene expression assessments of the allograft tissue, using microarrays. Effector cells were evaluated with in vitro human cell cultures. We studied a validation cohort of 98 heart recipients transplanted in Edmonton, AB, Canada, including 27 cases of AMR and 71 controls.
A total of 240 heart transplant endomyocardial biopsies were assessed. AMR showed a distinct pattern of injury characterized by endothelial activation with microcirculatory inflammation by monocytes/macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells. We also observed selective changes in endothelial/angiogenesis and NK cell transcripts, including CD16A signaling and interferon-γ-inducible genes. The AMR-selective gene sets accurately discriminated patients with AMR from those without and included NK transcripts (area under the curve=0.87), endothelial activation transcripts (area under the curve=0.80), macrophage transcripts (area under the curve=0.86), and interferon-γ transcripts (area under the curve=0.84; P<0.0001 for all comparisons). These 4 gene sets showed increased expression with increasing pathological AMR (pAMR) International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation grade (P<0.001) and association with donor-specific antibody levels. The unsupervised principal components analysis demonstrated a high proportion of molecularly inactive pAMR1(I+), and there was significant molecular overlap between pAMR1(H+) and full-blown pAMR2/3 cases. Endothelial activation transcripts, interferon-γ, and NK transcripts showed association with chronic allograft vasculopathy. The molecular architecture and selective AMR transcripts, together with gene set discrimination capacity for AMR identified in the discovery set, were reproduced in the validation cohort.
Tissue-based measurements of specific pathogenesis-based transcripts reflecting NK burden, endothelial activation, macrophage burden, and interferon-γ effects accurately classify AMR and correlate with degree of injury and disease activity. This study illustrates the clinical potential of a tissue-based analysis of gene transcripts to refine diagnosis of heart transplant rejection.
The movie tells the story of renal transplantation and its most famous contributors.
The Banff 2015 Kidney Meeting Report: Current Challenges in Rejection Classification and Prospects for Adopting Molecular Pathology.
A. Loupy, M. Haas, K. Solez, L. Racusen, D. Glotz, D. Seron, B. J. Nankivell, R. B. Colvin, M. Afrouzian, E. Akalin, N. Alachkar, S. Bagnasco, J. U. Becker, L. Cornell, C. Drachenberg, D. Dragun, H. de Kort, I. W. Gibson, E. S. Kraus C. Lefaucheur, C. Legendre, H. Liapis, T. Muthukumar, V. Nickeleit, B. Orandi, W. Park, M. Rabant, P. Randhawa, E. F. Reed, C. Roufosse, S. V. Seshan, B. Sis, H. K. Singh, C. Schinstock, A. Tambur, A. Zeevi, M. Mengel.
The XIII Banff meeting, held in conjunction the Canadian Society of Transplantation in Vancouver, Canada, reviewed the clinical impact of updates of C4d-negative antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) from the 2013 meeting, reports from active Banff Working Groups, the relationships of donor-specific antibody tests (anti-HLA and non-HLA) with transplant histopathology, and questions of molecular transplant diagnostics. The use of transcriptome gene sets, their resultant diagnostic classifiers, or common key genes to supplement the diagnosis and classification of rejection requires further consensus agreement and validation in biopsies. Newly introduced concepts include the i-IFTA score, comprising inflammation within areas of fibrosis and atrophy and acceptance of transplant arteriolopathy within the descriptions of chronic active T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) or chronic ABMR. The pattern of mixed TCMR and ABMR was increasingly recognized. This report also includes improved definitions of TCMR and ABMR in pancreas transplants with specification of vascular lesions and prospects for defining a vascularized composite allograft rejection classification. The goal of the Banff process is ongoing integration of advances in histologic, serologic, and molecular diagnostic techniques to produce a consensus-based reporting system that offers precise composite scores, accurate routine diagnostics, and applicability to next-generation clinical trials.
June 11-15, 2016 in Boston, MA
1/ Complement-Binding Donor-Specific Anti-HLA Antibodies Are Associated with Severe Kidney Allograft Arteriosclerosis
Concurrent Session: Novel Markers of Long Term Kidney Transplant Outcomes (2:30 PM-4:00 PM)
Ballroom A - 2:30 pm
A. Loupy, D. Viglietti, J. Duong Van Huyen, D. Glotz, C. Legendre, A. Zeevi, C. Lefaucheur. Necker Hospital, Paris, France; Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris, France; University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh
The role of circulating donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSA) in the development of accelerated arteriosclerosis have been recently reported in kidney transplant recipients. This study investigated the characteristics of DSA that are associated with the severity of allograft arteriosclerosis.
We enrolled 744 consecutive kidney transplantation performed between January 1, 2004 and January 1, 2010 at Necker Hospital (Paris, France), with systematic assessment of injury phenotype and arteriosclerotic lesions using the vascular fibrous intimal thickening (cv) Banff score on allograft biopsies performed at one year after transplantation. We assessed circulating DSA and their characteristics (specificity, HLA class, mean fluorescence intensity [MFI] and C1q-binding) at six months after transplantation.
We identified 281 patients with cv0 score, 213 patients with cv1 score, 189 patients with cv2 score and 61 patients with cv3 score. The distribution of DSA according to cv score was the following: 47/281 (17%) in cv0 patients, 39/213 (18%) in cv1 patients, 63/189 (33%) in cv2 patients and 28/61 (46%) in cv3 patients. Immunodominant DSA (iDSA) MFI level was positively correlated with the severity of arteriosclerosis (Spearman's rho=0.23, p=0.002), with a mean MFI of 3204.0±3725.2 in cv0 patients, 3760±3598 in cv1 patients, 4892±4676 in cv2 patients and 5541±3892 in cv3 patients. C1q-binding DSA prevalence increased with the severity of allograft arteriosclerosis: 8/281 (3%) in cv0 patients, 6/213 (3%) in cv1 patients, 25/189 (13%) in cv2 patients and 9/61 (15%) in cv3 patients (p<0.001). Patients with C1q-binding iDSA had a higher cv score compared with patients with non-C1q-binding DSA (1.7±1.0 versus 1.3±1.1, respectively, p=0.01). The C1q-binding capacity of DSA was associated with increased microvascular inflammation (p<0.001) and C4d deposition in peritubular capillaries or arteries (p<0.001).
This study shows a biological gradient between DSA MFI level and the severity of allograft arteriosclerosis. The complement-binding capacity of DSA is associated with an increased severity of arteriosclerosis and complement deposition in allograft.
Plenary session - Saturday April 30, 2016 - 10:55
M. Racapé, A. Loupy, J. Reeve, J. Venner, R. Guillemain, L. Hidalgo, C. Lefaucheur, X. Jouven, P. Bruneval, J. Duong Van Huyen, P. Halloran.
- Purpose: The detection of phosphorylated effectors of the mTOR pathway in endothelial cells by immunohistochemistry (IHC) has been associated with allograft rejection. The aim of this study was to evaluate in heart transplant recipients the molecular phenotype related to the endothelial detection of the phosphorylated effectors of the mTOR pathway, pS6RP.
- Methods: This case-control study included 41 heart transplant patients from four French referral centers with biopsy proven antibody-mediated rejection (pAMR+) and a matched control group of 32 patients without rejection (pAMR0) based on the updated ISHLT classification. From these patients, 93 endomyocardial biopsies (EMB) had adequate material for microarray analysis and IHC. We studied in all EMB the endothelial expression of pS6RP by IHC. We also determined the allograft gene expression profile using the ABMR molecular score in addition to pathogenesis-based transcripts reflecting endothelial activation (DSAST and ENDAT), macrophage burden (QCMAT), gamma-interferon response (GRIT) and NK-cell burden (NKB) (http://atagc.med.ualberta.ca).
- Results: Among the 93 EMBs included in main analyses, 49 were pAMR+ (52.7%) and 44 (47.3%) were pAMR0 normal EMBs. Endothelial expression of pS6RP was observed in 27/49 (55.1%) of pAMR+ biopsies and 12 out of 44 normal biopsies (27.3%, Fischer's exact: p=0.011). As compared with biopsies without endothelial pS6RP labeling, biopsies with positive endothelial pS6RP staining showed increased expression in DSAST (Mann-Whitney: p<0.0001), ENDAT (p=0.0008), QCMAT (p=0.0052), NKB (p=0.0001) and increased ABMR molecular score reflecting interferon-effects, microcirculation stress and NK burden (p=0.0001).
- Conclusion: Endothelial activation of mTOR pathway is associated with antibody-mediated allograft rejection and increased expression in transcripts reflecting endothelial activation, macrophage burden, microcirculation and NK burden. Our results suggest the importance of the mTOR pathway activation in antibody-mediated heart allograft injury and the potential interest of using mTOR inhibitors in this setting.
The XIIIth Banff Conference on Allograft Pathology: The Banff 2015 Heart Meeting Report: Improving Antibody-Mediated Rejection Diagnostics: Strengths, Unmet Needs, and Future Directions.
Bruneval P, Angelini A, Miller D, Potena L, Loupy A, Zeevi A, Reed EF, Dragun D, Reinsmoen N, Smith RN, West L, Tebutt S, Thum T, Haas M, Mengel M, Revelo P, Fedrigo M, Duong Van Huyen JP, Berry GJ.
The 13th Banff Conference on Allograft Pathology was held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada from October 5 to 10, 2015. The cardiac session was devoted to current diagnostic issues in heart transplantation with a focus on antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and small vessel arteriopathy. Specific topics included the strengths and limitations of the current rejection grading system, the central role of microvascular injury in AMR and approaches to semiquantitative assessment of histopathologic and immunophenotypic indicators, the role of AMR in the development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy, the important role of serologic antibody detection in the management of transplant recipients, and the potential application of new molecular approaches to the elucidation of the pathophysiology of AMR and potential for improving the current diagnostic system. Herein we summarize the key points from the presentations, the comprehensive, open and wide-ranging multidisciplinary discussion that was generated, and considerations for future endeavors.
2015 BAnff/CST Meeting, Organizing Corporation (MOC)
Alexandre Loupy, chair
Cinthia Beskox Drachenberg
W. Dean Wallace
Linda C cendales
2015 BANFF/CST, October 5-10, 2016 | Vancouver, BC
Kidney allograft rejection can occur in clinically stable patients, but long-term significance is unknown. We determined whether early recognition of subclinical rejection has long-term consequences for kidney allograft survival in an observational prospective cohort study of 1307 consecutive nonselected patients who underwent ABO-compatible, complement-dependent cytotoxicity-negative crossmatch kidney transplantation in Paris (2000-2010). Participants underwent prospective screening biopsies at 1 year post-transplant, with concurrent evaluations of graft complement deposition and circulating anti-HLA antibodies. The main analysis included 1001 patients. Three distinct groups of patients were identified at the 1-year screening: 727 (73%) patients without rejection, 132 (13%) patients with subclinical T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR), and 142 (14%) patients with subclinical antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). Patients with subclinical ABMR had the poorest graft survival at 8 years post-transplant (56%) compared with subclinical TCMR (88%) and nonrejection (90%) groups (P<0.001). In a multivariate Cox model, subclinical ABMR at 1 year was independently associated with a 3.5-fold increase in graft loss (95% confidence interval, 2.1 to 5.7) along with eGFR and proteinuria (P<0.001). Subclinical ABMR was associated with more rapid progression to transplant glomerulopathy. Of patients with subclinical TCMR at 1 year, only those who further developed de novo donor-specific antibodies and transplant glomerulopathy showed higher risk of graft loss compared with patients without rejection. Our findings suggest that subclinical TCMR and subclinical ABMR have distinct effects on long-term graft loss. Subclinical ABMR detected at the 1-year screening biopsy carries a prognostic value independent of initial donor-specific antibody status, previous immunologic events, current eGFR, and proteinuria.
Paris Transplant Group
Our global aim is to accelerate the translation of immunological and gene expression discoveries into the clinical field by filling the gap between basic science and applied biomedical researches.
Jean Luc Taupin
Jean Paul Duong Van Huyen
Jean Philippe Empana